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♦ Influence factors of communication distance


▪ Geographical environment
More intensive obstacles, the greater impact for the the wireless communication distance, especially metal objects, suburban and rural areas, hills, riverbeds and other half obstacle, semi-open   environment, the nearest communication distance are the city buildings or mountains. Therefore, if the more obstacle near wireless module will also affect the communication distance and reliability.

Climatic condition
Far communication distance in the dry air , short communication distance in the humid air, special rain, snow weather, the products permissible ambient operating temperature range, the rised temperature will reduce the transmit power and receiver sensitivity, there by reducing the communication distance.
▪ Transmitter RF output power
The greater transmit power, the greater communication distance; in theory transmit power can increase unlimited, but in fact due to cost or wireless control, the transmitter output power is limited.
▪ Receiver sensitivity of the receiver

Receiver sensitivity to reflect the function of the receiver to capture weak signals, the high receiver sensitivity, the farther communication distance. But due to the nature of electromagnetic noise and industrial pollution, the impact of the inherent noise of the electronic components, -123dBm (0.158uv) is usually considered to be the receive sensitivity limit that a pure hardware can achieved in modern radio communication, difficult to break.
▪ System anti-jamming capability
There is always a variety of interference sources in the actual communication environment, under the premise of the same transmit power and the same receiver sensitivity, the stronger anti-jamming capability of the system will be the farther communication distance.
▪ Software correction
Software correction system, the communication distance is far than the system without software correction, software error correction can improve the receiver sensitivity 1-3dB, but will be some delay ,in demanding real-time system should consider the impact of this factor.



▪ Electromagnetic environment
DC motor, high voltage power grid, switching power supplies, welding machines, high frequency electronic devices, computers, microcontrollers and other devices have different levels impact for communication distance of wireless communication devices.
▪ Antenna type and its gain
The higher gain of the antenna, the farther communication distance. It can significantly improve the power density (field strength) on the communication direction, when transmitter using high-gain directional antenna, and the receiver uses a high gain directional antenna can improve signal / noise ratio and to improve the reception field strength, thus to improve a wide margin communication distance.
▪ Effective height of antenna
The higher height of the antenna from the ground plane, the farther communication distance, when the same premise of a variety of conditions, especially in urban environments, improve the antenna height will be more helpful for communication distance than increasing the transmission power.

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